Introduction to Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

Pro-Uro™: Empowering Women Everywhere

This article on Abnormal Uterine Bleeding was written with the help of the speakers based off the popular topics from our recent educational webinar “Women’s Health & Self-Care” jointly organised with Singapore Nurses Association in conjunction with Nurses’ Day.

Read on to learn more about Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

Menstruation items, tampons, pads

Source: Emilija Manevska / Getty Images

Menstruation or period is the monthly shedding of the uterine lining, in response to the hormones produced by the women’s body. Its function is to prepare the female body for potential pregnancy and also to discharge unneeded tissue and materials from the uterus.

The average period cycle of a woman is 28 days long, however, it can range from 25 to 30 days.¹ The typical volume of blood lost during menstruation is approximately 30 ml.¹ Thus, vaginal bleeding that soaks through one or more pads or tampons every hour for several hours in a row during one’s period is considered abnormal.

What is Abnormal Uterine Bleeding?

Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is bleeding from the uterus or vagina that is not normal in regularity, volume, frequency, or duration.² It is a common medical condition, affecting up to 25% of women of reproductive age.³

How do you know if your vaginal bleeding is abnormal?²

  • Periods at irregular intervals

  • Absence of periods

  • Periods that go on for long durations (>7 days)

  • Heavy period bleeding to the point of affecting daily life

  • Vaginal spotting or light bleeding that happens outside of regular periods

Holding pregnancy test kit
Pregnancy can cause vaginal spotting which many women commonly mistake for their monthly period.

What causes abnormal vaginal bleedings?²

  • Abnormal growths in uterus - Fibroids, polyps, cancers

  • Pregnancy

  • Use of blood thinners or anticoagulants

  • Certain medical conditions - Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), hyperthyroidism, liver disease

  • Mental stress

  • Primary disorder of the endometrium

  • Medication therapy that may lead to unscheduled endometrial bleeding - Hormonal birth control eg. IntraUterine Devices (IUD) and birth control pills

  • Inflammation or infection of the endometrium


  • Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common and debilitating health condition.

  • There are multiple factors that may lead to abnormal uterine bleeding.

  • It is important to identify whether your vaginal bleeding is not normal so you can seek necessary medical attention early on.

This health article is brought to you by Miraco Nutripharm. With clinically proven women’s probiotic Pro-Uro™ as our key product, we believe in sharing about common health topics relevant to women. Look out for part 2 of this article to learn more about the Diagnosis and Treatment of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.


1. Reed BG, Carr BR. The Normal Menstrual Cycle and the Control of Ovulation. [Updated 2018 Aug 5]. In: Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Boyce A, et al., editors. Endotext [Internet]. South Dartmouth (MA):, Inc; 2000. Available from:

2. De Silva NK. Abnormal uterine bleeding in adolescents: Evaluation and approach to diagnosis. In: UpToDate, Post TW (Ed), UpToDate, Waltham, MA, 2021.

3. Whitaker L, Critchley HO. Abnormal uterine bleeding. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2016;34:54-65. doi:10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2015.11.012

Disclaimer: The article content is intended for informational or educational purposes only, and does not substitute professional medical advice or consultations with healthcare professionals. The disclaimer also provides that no warranties are given in relation to the medical information supplied in the article, and that no liability will accrue to Miraco Nutripharm Pte Ltd or any affiliated authors in the event that a user suffers loss as a result of reliance upon the information.

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